Expectations to be taught at a young age in schools. Everyone raises their family different and one of the only times the government and community can impact a child,being taught things that do not fit with our society, is in school.
It is known around the world in some countries you cannot chew gum or smoke in public as they have set an expectation of their citizens and visitors. Australia is a laid back country and I think we could adopt this in our approach to tackle this issue. Reinforcement after school teachings with messages in public transport " Courtesy is free" "Spitting is not proper" Community events and council to regularly praise and name volunteers have a council run volunteer page where club's can nominate a volunteer for praise. To raise pride in doing the right thing and being a part of something greater than ourselves. People like to follow direction and by providing it by showing the our countries expectations, we are also showing we care. By giving a bit more. If everyone gives a bit it can have huge affect. By getting everyone on board and they are part of it.